Three slow transport ships departed from Truk on 16 August, carrying the remaining 1,400 soldiers from Ichiki's (28th) Infantry Regiment plus 500 naval marines from the 5th Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force. 224, 251–254, 266; Jersey, pp.  The Japanese defenders were killed almost to the last man, while the Marines suffered a loss of 122 men. Santo, Saturday, in dense jungles. The Japanese planned to transport a total of 17,500 troops from these two divisions to Guadalcanal to take part in the next major attack on the Lunga Perimeter set for 20 October 1942. Holmberg, was established to After suffering heavy damage during the battle, including the sinking of one of the transports, the convoy was forced to divert to the Shortland Islands in the northern Solomons in order to transfer the surviving troops to destroyers for later delivery to Guadalcanal. Dull, pp. In total, the Japanese lost 2,200–3,000 troops in the battle while the Americans lost around 80 killed. 1942, Tuesday, at sea. of Major General Joseph H. For the U.S., this need prompted the development of effective combat air transport for the first time. Kondo flew his flag in the cruiser Atago. The Japanese secretly began to prepare for the evacuation, called Operation Ke, scheduled to begin during the latter part of January 1943. Dull, pp. National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific. The IJN personnel included Japanese and Korean construction specialists as well as trained combat troops. By August, the Japanese had about 900 naval troops on Tulagi and nearby islands and 2,800 personnel (2,200 being Korean forced laborers and trustees as well as Japanese construction specialists) on Guadalcanal. General Kawaguchi, who landed at Taivu Point on 31 August Express run, was placed in command of all Japanese forces on Guadalcanal. accidental death (mc), DEUTERMAN, William The new command encompassed both Hyakutake's 17th Army and the 18th Army in New Guinea. The mounds of supplies along with intelligence gathered from the captured documents informed the Marines that at least 3,000 Japanese troops were on the island and apparently planning an attack. 339–341; Hough, p. 330; Rottman, p. 62; Griffith, pp. The Guadalcanal campaign ended all Japanese expansion attempts and placed the Allies in a position of clear supremacy. line defending the The attack killed almost 2,500 people and crippled much of the U.S. battleship fleet, precipitating an open and formal state of war between the two nations the next day. By Capt. the Matanikau River upstream was right of the raider-parachute 26–33; Kilpatrick, pp. 132, 158. Aircraft Group 23 and two On August 7, 1942, some 6,000 men of the U.S. 1st Marine Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Alexander Vandegrift, launched an amphibious assault on Guadalcanal and Florida Island, surprising Guadalcanal’s 2,000 Japanese defenders. Several other warships were damaged including Tanaka's own Jintsū. Hyakutake prepared to send more troops to Guadalcanal for another attempt to recapture Henderson Field. In total, the Japanese successfully evacuated 10,652 men from Guadalcanal. was forced to Though the exact number of the 5th Yokosuka troops killed in the sinking of their transport ship is unknown, the losses were considered to be substantial. , Between 1 and 17 October, the Japanese delivered 15,000 troops to Guadalcanal, giving Hyakutake 20,000 total troops to employ for his planned offensive. Smith, pp. The ridge, called Lunga Ridge, offered a natural avenue of approach to the airfield, commanded the surrounding area and, at that time, was almost undefended. One of these was the recently promoted Colonel Merritt Edson who was placed in command of the 5th Marine Regiment. Worth, Texas, to function as a The 3d Marine Division was  Tiny Tulagi had a large natural harbor perfect for a float-plane base and small Florida had to be taken as it dominated Tulagi. The photograph provides information that the battle was fought on a semi-arid island. The Battle of the Ridge. Most of the men in Ichiki's second echelon were from. Bodies of Japanese soldiers who tried to overrun US Marine positions on the island's coast, lying half-buried in an Ilu River sandbar. Lee, was organized at Fort Japanese bombers and Zeroes Over two consecutive nights Maruyama's forces conducted numerous frontal assaults on positions defended by troops of the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines under Lieutenant Colonel Chesty Puller and the U.S. Army's 3rd Battalion, 164th Infantry Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Hall. On 7 December 1941, Japanese forces attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 116–124; and Smith, pp. 376–378; Morison. Cruz to strike the Japanese 203–205; Morison. Casualties arranged in date order, as well as background to battles and actions from the official USMC Chronology, are being added at: ... Willoughby, Ohio (na) + BARBER, Allan Morley, 28116, VMD254, MAG61, 1stMAW, FMF, Guadalcanal, November 20, 1944, accidental death (mc) + BARBER, Allan Morley, Second Lieutenant, O-028116, USMC, from Ohio, Manila American Cemetery (bm) + … Approximately 20,000 U.S. Marines and 40,000 U.S. Army troops were deployed on Guadalcanal at different times during the campaign. 367361, 1stSigCo, HqBn, DivSupTrps, died of wounds Because of the failure to deliver most of the troops and supplies, the Japanese were forced to cancel their planned November offensive on Henderson Field making the results of the battle a significant strategic victory for the Allies and marking the beginning of the end of Japanese attempts to retake Henderson Field. , On 14 January, a Tokyo Express run delivered a battalion of troops to act as a rear guard for the Ke evacuation. Several other reinforcements, support, and bombardment groups sortied from both Truk and Rabaul. September 20, 1942, Monday, Rottman, p. 61; Griffith, p. 152; Frank, pp. Although an apparent tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk and damaged, the loss by the Japanese of many irreplaceable, veteran aircrews provided a long-term strategic advantage for the Allies, whose aircrew losses in the battle were relatively low. These units added about 1,500 troops to Vandegrift's original 11,000 men defending Henderson Field. SEPTEMBER 1942, Battles for Guadalcanal, FAIRCHILD, Howard provide, equip, and maintain The American forces only had two carriers, the Saratoga and Enterprise respectively, and their 176 aircraft. , Simultaneously, the U.S. carrier task forces under Fletcher approached Guadalcanal to counter the Japanese offensive efforts. The participating Japanese carrier forces, however, also retired because of high aircraft and aircrew losses and significant damage to two carriers. After breaking through the Marine lines the battalion's assault was eventually stopped by Marine units guarding the northern part of the ridge. 143, 173–177, 183, 189, 213–219; Jersey, pp. 367–368; Frank, pp. The 15-mile-long (24 km) trail traversed some of the most difficult terrain on Guadalcanal, including numerous rivers and streams, deep, muddy ravines, steep ridges, and dense jungle. American forces first landed on the Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida on the morning of August 7,1942. 378–383, 383, 400–401; Miller pp. The Japanese suffered moderate damage to one cruiser. Jr, 6127, AdminComd, 2ndMAW, NAS, San Diego, Bad weather allowed the Allied expeditionary force to arrive unseen by the Japanese on the night of 6 August and the morning of 7 August, taking the defenders by surprise. Vandegrift, therefore, decided to conduct another series of small unit operations around the Matanikau Valley. 221–222; and Smith, p. 130. At 05:55, U.S. aircraft and artillery began attacking the beached transports, destroying all four transports along with most of the supplies that they carried. This action, sometimes referred to as the "First Battle of the Matanikau", was the first of several major actions around the Matanikau River during the campaign. September 28, 1942, 1stMarDiv, 347–350; Frank, pp. 161–167. The Japanese estimated that there were 10,000 American troops on the island, when in fact there were about 23,000. September 2, 1942, Thursday, September, 118–119; and Hough, p. 293. In restricted waters, like around Guadalcanal, this might be more important than maximum speed. , On 28 December, General Hajime Sugiyama and Admiral Osami Nagano personally informed Emperor Hirohito of the decision to withdraw from Guadalcanal. When Shōji reached the 17th Army positions west of the Matanikau, only 700 to 800 survivors were still with him. 298–299; Frank, pp. After Guadalcanal, Allied personnel regarded the Japanese military with much less fear and awe than previously. The convoy on 1 September also brought 392 Seabees to maintain and improve Henderson Field. Of these, about 1,600 were killed by enemy action and 4,245 wounded. Additionally, the reinforcement of Henderson Field of Guadalcanal by Enterprise's aircraft established a precedent. 34, 63, 139–151; Morison. Other Allied land, naval and air force units were sent to establish or reinforce bases in Fiji, Samoa, New Hebrides and New Caledonia. 156–157, 164. More details of the event are at Clark, Jack, "Goettge Patrol". of the Coral Sea, Battle At the same time, several army staff officers at the Imperial General Headquarters (IGH) also suggested that further efforts to retake Guadalcanal would be impossible. NC, died (mc), NISSEN, Louis John, 332–333; Frank, pp. , Meanwhile, on 4 November, two companies from the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Evans Carlson landed by boat at Aola Bay, 40 miles (64 km) east of Lunga Point.  In total, 789 of the original 917 members of the Ichiki Regiment's First Element were killed in the battle. 420–421; Hoffman. 217–23; Hough, pp. At the same time, Japanese warships and aircraft moved into position around the Rabaul and Bougainville areas in preparation to execute the withdrawal operation. The men of the 1st Marine Division began referring to the coming battle as "Operation Shoestring". Frank, pp. On a level playing field, the Allies had beaten Japan's best land, air, and naval forces. 132–133; Frank, pp. destroyers entered Sealark 346–348; Rottman, p. 62. , In preparation for the offensive in the Pacific in May 1942, U.S. Marine Major General Alexander Vandegrift was ordered to move his 1st Marine Division from the United States to New Zealand. This spelled trouble for Japan as its military-industrial complex was unable to match the output of American industry and manpower. 161–164; Dull, p. 265; Evans, pp.  The landing force split into two groups, with one group assaulting Guadalcanal, and the other Tulagi, Florida, and nearby islands. 237–244; Frank, pp. Frank, pp. 248–249; and Smith, pp. , As Kondo's ships retired, the four Japanese transports beached themselves near Tassafaronga on Guadalcanal at 04:00 and quickly began unloading. Kawaguchi Force to penetrate the Two Japanese destroyers were sunk and another destroyer and the Hiei heavily damaged. Embedded journalist Richard Tregaskis, while engaged among the Marines, later wrote his infamous Guadalcanal Diary. 46–47; Zimmerman, pp. Page 1. 174.). The Americans appeared to be on the verge of breaking through the Japanese defenses and capturing Kokumbona. The Marine fighters went into action the next day on the first of the almost-daily Japanese bomber air raids.  Later on the morning of 12 October, four Japanese destroyers from the supply convoy turned back to assist Gotō's retreating, damaged warships. at night. Boesser, 7127, VMF111, MAG13, 1stMAW, Tutuila, Samoan Damaged: destroyers USS Ralph Talbot and USS Patterson. 184–194. Soon after landing, the Japanese soldiers encountered and drove Hanneken's battalion back towards the Lunga perimeter. Guadalcanal is no longer merely a name of an island in Japanese military history. 162–193; Frank, pp. Gilbert, 336678, MarBks, NAS, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Along with the Battle of Midway, it has been called a turning-point in the war against Japan. Camp Pendleton, named in honor  Five days' worth of food had been landed from the transports, which, along with captured Japanese provisions, gave the Marines a total of 14 days' supply of food. 199–200; Jersey, p. 85; and Lundstrom, p. 5. , After the Japanese withdrawal, Guadalcanal and Tulagi were developed into major bases supporting the Allied advance further up the Solomon Islands chain. Force 65. The cost of victory, though dear, had not been prohibitive. Nimitz had replaced Ghormley with Admiral Halsey on 18 October after concluding that Ghormley had become too pessimistic and myopic to effectively continue leading Allied forces in the South Pacific area. in dense jungles. torpedoes carrier Wasp (CV-7) at was forced to withdraw north of Air attacks by CAF aircraft from Henderson Field sank two of these destroyers later that day. Smith, p. 88; Evans, p. 158; and Frank, pp. Meanwhile, on 25 August, the American carrier Wasp, after refueling, positioned itself east of Guadalcanal expecting Japanese movement to the area. The 500 Japanese involved were from the 84th Guard Unit, 11th and 13th Construction Units, and the recently arrived 1st Camp Relief Unit. , On the evening of 12 August, a 25-man U.S. Marine patrol, led by Division D-2 Lieutenant Colonel Frank Goettge and primarily consisting of intelligence personnel, landed by boat west of the US Marine Lunga perimeter, east of Point Cruz and west of the Japanese perimeter at Matanikau River, on a reconnaissance mission with a secondary objective of contacting a group of Japanese troops that U.S. forces believed might be willing to surrender. 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