The pupils quickly discovered that the time span was different for each element of time on the word list. To gain insight into this group may provide both others and myself in the field of education with more effective tools to gain our objective...to provide the best possible education for children with DS. Till now I have attributed such change and progress to SCM and the MLE method. Teacher Research And School Improvement, Buckingham: Open University. Are more aware of own errors. The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability (SCM) using the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) method and its practical application, the Instrumental Enrichment (IE) program, are historically devoted to just this aspect of life. They could easily accept the similarities as analyzable, but the differences upset them. 2005 Jun;115(6):e626-36. Deaf children had separate schools, physically handicapped children were segregated, children with behavior problems were relegated to special schools and retarded children sometimes did not even receive a formal education. NIH From the Internet: http://www.cogdevsoc.org/eventabs.html. Some general programs for cognitive development (Gardner, 1996; Cognitive Research Program, 1996) are now being applied to learners with DS. Pupils are beginning to use search strategies and hypothesis testing accepting that they may require changes. The research project is a case study using Qualitative Research that takes place in HWCRI. Elliot, J. Research on cognitive development has been driven by a pragmatic approach, through which we observe the child's interactions with the physical world to determine the child's cognitive skills as demonstrated in home and school environments. There are too many other factors involved. Within HWCRI the story was different. (1999), "Bias in Mental Testing since Bias in Mental Testing" School Psychology Quarterly, Vol. This permits an interrelation that is reciprocally acceptable despite potential tensions. Bruner, J.S., Oliver, R.R., Greenfield, P.M., et al. (Broom et al., 1988) People with disabilities, whether physical or mental disabilities were treated in different ways according to where and when they lived. It was not difficult therefore to get them seated and working as well. In the 1960s in the United States a maxim developed during the Civil Rights demonstrations - "Separate is not equal". This is where education for, or in, cognitive development comes to the fore. It is therefore usually necessary to gather them. Empty spaces are important. 5. äúìîéã\ä îúáèà àú øöåðå\ä áàåôï îéìåìé. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Afterwards we spent some time discussing the virtual relationships, emphasizing the need to recognize when similarities are important. We drew a table on the blackboard with the different criteria suggested. Request for help on task that is easy for him or her. Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse. Theory is formed on the basis of observation and evidence. A native of Botoşani, Romania, and Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology, Feuerstein dedicated most of his life to education and to people with major learning difficulties. There has been in this brief period change and progress that could not have been expected of any child with DS if one relies solely on general prognoses for learners with this syndrome. In the recent past, the teacher in the school for children with special educational needs had no guidance at all, other than her or his own professional background and training. BW: The modifiability of the brain at different stages — that is the theory you founded, structural cognitive modifiability (SCM). This is the penultimate page of the instrument Comparisons. The objective of Special Education is to develop and to advance the skills and the abilities of the exceptional child, to correct and to improve his ability to function physically, mentally, emotionally and behaviorally, to provide him with knowledge, skills and habits which will allow him to acquire behavior patterns acceptable to society, in order to ease his integration into the larger society and the world of work. The concept of modifiability, in the context of Structural Cognitive Modifiability theory means that the changes that occur are not a fragmented, episodic consequence of exposure to experiences, but rather a type of change that affects the basic structure of behavior. Instrumental Enrichment: An Intervention Program for Cognitive Modifiability They all saw the pictures and some of the differences but were unable to define exactly what were the similarities or the differences. That they are contributing factors may well be, but since intentionality and reciprocity also appear 7 times, they too are likely contributing factors. They are analyzable only as relatives not as absolutes with numerical values. From ERIC database [now defunct]>. (2000), The Quest for Literacy: Curriculum and Instructional Procedures for Teaching Reading and Writing to Students with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Prism Series, Vol. Focusing (speech), Verbal stimulation, Discrimination and sequencing, Directing attention, Critical interpretation, Need of precision at both input and output levels, Confrontation of reality, Perception of feelings—verbal and nonverbal, Reciprocity. 40 (2), 233-244, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Methodology: A year, defined for the religious pupils as from Rosh Hashanah (New Year) to Rosh Hashanah helped. They were in the main unable however to ascertain the reasons for their preferences other than in a very general mode. 8. äúìîéã\ä îúòðééï áðåùàéí ùåðéí åçãùéí. More seriously affected children will experience delays in such areas of motor-skill development as mobility, body image, and control of body actions. The Chairman of the CoR will invite the CoR. Only one pupil, "F" did not respond at all during this first discussion. A more successful education leads usually to a better job, a fuller social life and a more rounded individual. During the interviews of the teachers it was found that their own need to be proud of their pupils might have influenced their answers. Can these children classified as retarded by the educational system and assigned to a special educational needs school, be modified to the extent that they will be able to cope in a typical school? In contrast to their classmates, students with MR often have problems with attention, perception, memory, problem solving, and logical thought. Read Cognitive Modifiability in Learning and Assessment: International Perspectives book reviews & author details and more at … During the first lesson I distributed a personal calendar to each pupil. Only "C" was able to refer to the amount of liquid in the glass. IEPs are considered a basic necessity for every learner. Caretakers and Therapists that are not Teachers. Ability to adapt accordingly is seen. Lack of strategies for hypothesis testing. 65 (1) pp. At the beginning of the twentieth century others were working on the goals of education from different viewpoints: Thorndike (1911), the Gestalten (Wertheimer, 1912) and Piaget (1924), emphasized innate developmental factors. The Ontogeny of Cognitive Modifiability: Applied Aspects of Mediated Learning Experience and Instrumental Enrichment, Jerusalem: ICELP & HWCRI, pp. A theory of cognitive modifiability deals with the phenomenon of low cognitive performance, explains its etiology, and forms the basis for a remedial intervention--Instrumental Enrichment (IE)--that induces changes of a structural nature in adolescents. Vulliamy, G. & Webb, R. (1992), Teacher Research and Special Educational Needs, London: David Fulton. Smith, London: Routledge. We were now able to make progress. 18 (4), 252-255. (Eds) (1993), Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation, Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. It is possible to split them into two major groupings: The second group on the other hand, while accepting the need for social skills emphasizes the need for the development of literacy and other academic skills such as arithmetic skills as crucial to survival in the modern world. Pupil doesn't recognize complexity of task. This is true especially since not all of the pupils in the project have the advantage of a warm and accepting home life. Reynolds & H.Y. As we circled around the table in the center of the room, each pupil pointed out as he came to the same spot repeatedly. No researcher that comes in for a session or two can possibly evaluate the entire human being as can the teacher who sees the child daily, under many different circumstances. Klein & A.J. Each pupil therefore was permitted to choose whether he or she was comparing the square itself, or the lines within it. (p. 252). Feuerstein’s ‘Cognitive Functions/Dysfunctions’ can be used by any teacher to explore learners’ strengths and needs in the cognitive and metacognitive learning process. Parents often know their children best. Tzabar Ben-Yehshua in her book Qualitative Research in Education and Instruction, (1997), defines the goals and objectives of Qualitative Research as the development of knowledge and the understanding of concepts. Need of precision at output levels, Confrontation of reality, Organization of stimuli. (Sample page follows.) àìôøè, á. Pediatrics. We spent a good deal more time on concrete activities, such as comparing the eyeglasses of two of the students. (Elliot, 1991). Now he was able to relate our work and his father's. The dynamic assessment tool, Feuerstein’s Learning Potential/Propensity Assessment Device is an in depth assessment tool to be used for assessment of how best to enhance an individual’s cognitive performance. These statements are a far cry from the previously held beliefs that IQ number is a specific and a determinate of a person's ability to learn. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. This agrees with Lebeer & Garbo (1997) in their statement that the mediator may be as important as the method being used. To be aware of the danger of stereotyping should then be in the forefront of our minds at all times. Theories of cognitive development require a practical pragmatic form of application for the child in the classroom. We discussed the reasons that the problem of identifying the criteria was so much more difficult than setting up the criteria and then using their comparative skills. The Disability Discrimination Act and legislation on inclusion recognize that people with learning disabilities have equal rights and their opportunities for education and employment are much better than 50 years ago. The realization that it was sometimes the teacher and not the subject that was the basis for preference surprised many of the pupils. Gain insight into the pupil's own reactions to the method: Do pupils presently using this method feel that they are accomplishing more than they did with other methods, previously? The lesson proved enthralling and over-ran its time limit. During Review discussions as specified in small sections [b] and [c] the CoR is entitled to reach it's decision on the basis of documentation only. It was no longer a free-swinging discussion, but required serious operational cognitive processes. The pupils began to work independently and to complete the first row. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reasons for Choice of a Qualitative Approach. The Impediments of the Qualitative Research Method 18 (3) June 1992). Lack of need for precision and accuracy in data gathering. This is a case study using a qualitative approach. "C" discussed house cleaning, "A" the buildings in his neighborhood, while "D" and "F" used their own watches. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-0844. On the other hand, educators should seriously question its use. Broom, L., Selznick, P., & Broom, D. (1988), Essentials of Sociology, New York: Harper & Row. In the first class "A" and "C" mentioned fruit. When reading skills were required the mediators read the material to the pupils (Appendix 4, A-D). Pupils are becoming aware that it is permitted to make errors and that they can be corrected. Therefore, it is our duty and pleasure to enable each individual pupil to reach self-realization and to have his or her full potential released. We based judgments on specific criteria. The MODALITY in which the mental act is expressed (verbal, pictorial, numerical, graphic, etc.) (p. 61). We searched for commonalties in the foods suggested, and then the differences between them. CoRs will be composed of seven members as detailed below: A representative of the LEA who will serve as the Chairman of the CoR; Two Inspectors from the Ministry of Education and Culture, one of them being an Inspector of Special Education, or their representatives; An Educational Psychologist according to the Law of Psychologists 5737-1977, [herinafter called the. It was necessary to give them exact examples, such as a letter versus a package. 14 (3), 208-238. (àó àí æä ëåìì äúðäâåú ìà øöåéä). Fine discrimination proved to be a problem for all of the students in the fourth exercise. "A", "C", "D" and "F" were able to produce examples. Results suggest that it is possible to improve cognitive functioning of children with developmental disability. Nevin, A. ëììé. Nonelaboration of certain cognitive categories. This was a wonderful introduction to the idea of divergent thinking. 2020 Jan;99(2):e18674. Uses two or more sources of information at once. Both the teaching aide and I moved around providing individual help as needed. (The Instructional Methods Report Series.). The pupils resisted accepting that another had an equal right to his or her opinion. As may be seen from the above, most of the pupils' behavior began to change during the fourth meeting. Almost all of the pupils noted the leaf first, although it is not of the essence. Discussing comparative behavior, I asked them to provide criteria in which the two objects were similar and dissimilar. During these 20 years I have worked with children and young adults who were mentally retarded (MR), neurologically and/or chromosomally disabled, learning disabled, environmentally and/or socially deprived, physically handicapped and with multiply handicapped children with severe MR. From this personal experience I can see the different results in the pupils at the usual Ministry of Education schools and those of HWCRI. Pupils understand tasks. This engendered a discussion of searching for all pertinent clues. Afterwards the pupils began to work on the page individually, the aide and I helping with reading the criteria as needed. (Sample pages follow.) Based on Feuerstein's theory, once the learner is cognitively aware of the problem we can begin to work on a solution. Educational framework placement often depended upon physical and/or learning disabilities, emotional difficulties or environmental handicaps (Shakespeare, 1975). Difficulty in projecting virtual relationships. [No longer available], Nouvelles recherches sur la mesure du niveau intellectuel chez les enfants d'ecole. "What day is tomorrow?" F can now say "yes" The automatic "no" is not always seen. Lesson 8 - Comparisons, page 16 The focus was on plasticity in aging using the magnification perspective. An important subject this needs to be developed later. ðçîéàñ, ç. Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y. I opened with the topic of how we can 'learn to learn'. (1995), "Numerical Ability, General Ability and Language in Children With Down Syndrome", Down Syndrome Research and Practice, Vol. I cannot present actual statistics not having kept them over the years. & 7. I have worked in the field of special education for 20 years, which includes a variety of special education schools, a typical school and for the Hadassah-WIZO-Canada Research Institute (HWCRI). N.K. To apply the learned ability to restrain impulsivity and perceive environmental clues. This is a compilation of two lessons for each of the two classes investigated. The design includes teacher questionnaires, direct participant-observer activities and interviews with pupils past and present, teachers and parents. This group tends to prefer separated schools or classes within typical schools. Principles and attributes induced are both objective and subjective. We then stopped to discuss how using time to plan actually saves time. Wishart (1998) states that: Among individuals with MR, there is a wide range of abilities, disabilities, strengths and needs for support, as is true of all human beings (Dyson, 1994; Spitalnik, 1994; Norwich, 1996; Wishart, 1998). It is common to find language delay and motor development significantly below norms of peers who do not have mental retardation. Ponjaert-Kristoffersen I, Bonduelle M, Barnes J, Nekkebroeck J, Loft A, Wennerholm UB, Tarlatzis BC, Peters C, Hagberg BS, Berner A, Sutcliffe AG. The research has gone through the following steps: Goals and Objectives: Presseisen, B. The last five minutes we spent in discussion of what we had learned. Intelligence as cognitive development based on genetic factors, intellectual abilities and the learning process itself followed soon after (Tolman, 1932; Bandura, 1960; Bruner et al., 1966). These processes include: Establishing confidence in the ability of children with DS to acquire greater academic skills if provided with the necessary tools to do so, will hopefully have an effect on special education in general. Cognitive Modifiability in Learning and Assessment: International Perspectives by Tan Oon Seng and Alice Seok-Hoon Seng (2007-12-31): Books - Amazon.ca & Kozulin, A. The 1970 Education (Handicapped Children) Act recognized and tried to rectify the problem. The protocol, medical documentation and all other documentation brought before the CoR is confidential, however, it is permitted to allow a person consulted by the CoR to read the relevant documents. It is easier to see differences. School Psychology Quarterly, Vol. It was necessary to identify carefully the differences between these shapes and the shapes on the previous page. Since many of our students are hesitant to attempt active discussions, it becomes necessary to make the subject interesting to them. Feuerstein R. & Rand, Y., (1997), Don't Accept Me As I Am: Helping Retarded Performers Excel, Illinois: Skylight. Appendix 4E By exposing their own comprehension of themselves and their ideas the Qualitative investigator succeeds in understanding internal processes, as they exist in real life. Do past pupils feel that the program has helped them? Raina P, O'Donnell M, Rosenbaum P, Brehaut J, Walter SD, Russell D, Swinton M, Zhu B, Wood E. Pediatrics. Braden, J.P. (1999), "Straight Talk About Assessment and Diversity: What Do We Know?"  |  What changes might be introduced to improve the program for learners with DS? To avoid difficulties due to sweeping perception. (1995), "Literacy for All? Newcombe, N. (1999), "What Can Genetic Disorders Tell Us About Normal Cognitive Development?" "Different therapists yield different results even while using the same methods. He also used 'fruit'. Less use of trial-and-error methods. The size of the target population was very small. Some of the changes we see occurring throughout the world include the field of special education itself. From the Internet: http://www.riverbendds.org/wishart.html. These are the days of the week in which the pupils have IE lessons. Mediated Learning and Its Application to the Enhancement of Mathematical Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome, Communication Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide for Parents, Ecological influences in development of brain-impaired children: a multi-dimensional approach, The Ontogeny Of Cognitive Modifiability: Applied Aspects of Mediated Learning Experience and Instrumental Enrichment, Improving the Communication of People with Down Syndrome, Cognitive Processes in the Child with Down Syndrome, Numerical Ability, General Ability and Language in Children With Down Syndrome, Teaching Reading to Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Teachers, http://caslater.freeservers.com/disability1.htm, The Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome. (1992), àúðåâøôéä áäëùøä ôãâåâéú ëìéí ìäúáåððåú åç÷éøä, àñåôú îàîøéí, øîú àáéá: äàåðéáøñéèä äôúåçä. After some 10 minutes, I guided the discussion into the subject of IE. I promised that we would continue it the next day. It is helpful to focus on the three component parts of “modifiability” “cognitive,” and “structural” to understand the approach that Feuerstein proposes. They then found it comparatively easy to note the difference as 'size'. To identify and understand the relationship between a whole and its parts (analysis). Society is changing. Action research by the teacher in the classroom is therefore appropriate in these circumstances. Lack of receptive verbal tools that affect discrimination. Then came the dependence on intelligence tests and the so-called 'IQ' scores. Some of the parents have received guidance in MLE since their children were very young. The first article in this section is deleted from the publicly published dissertation because permission was not received to disseminate it. (Tzabar Ben-Yehshua, 2001) (The quote is a free translation from the Hebrew.). Miller, J.F., Leddy, M. & Leavitt, L.A. (1999), Improving the Communication of People with Down Syndrome, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes. It is difficult to write generally about pupils who vary so greatly in their abilities and personalities, but I will add that some of the pupils coped with the full workload more easily than others; C is a case in point. We investigated first concrete objects in the room, the chairs, our clothing and so on. We played a game in which each pupil took the name of a holiday. Even if the the funds were provided, this is still segregation. USA.gov. [Please note: Appendix 2 - Examples Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Each of the (1997), (ed) The Ontogeny of Cognitive Modifiability: Applied Aspects of Mediated Learning Experience and Instrumental Enrichment, Jerusalem: ICELP & HWCRI. All of the teachers involved were made fully aware from the beginning of the research. During the period in question (four weeks) both the teacher-researcher and the educational aide found themselves deeply involved in the process. Katims, D.S. "B" talked about swimming versus school. Then, cognitive modifiability refers to structure changes, or to changes in the state of the organism, brought about by a deliberated program of intervention. Motivation, progress, the ability to deal with frustration, overcoming innate difficulties, such as the pertinacity often found in combination with DS and social skills are abstract concepts. They may not be published in a public format.). According to Tzabar Ben-Yehoshua (2001), ethics applies to publication of one's finding and the anonymity of the subjects as well. The use of clues, such as the date that is written on the blackboard and discussion of the day's specific programs were tools used in the lesson. Unplanned, impulsive and unsystematic exploratory behavior. Jr. (1960), Personality Development in Children, Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. It is one of the better means of evaluating educational objectives. Wang (1990), makes a point of noting the adverse effects of labeling and goes on to emphasize the "...need for a data base to describe learner characteristics in terms of the cognitive and social competencies required to achieve intended learning outcomes." An official protocol will be kept. That environment alone however was insufficient to change these pupils' learning abilities until they began the IE program. Then we made a circle. Turning to the first example we examined the model and analyzed it. àîéø, î. The strengths of children with various learning disabilities (e.g. It proved necessary to define a 'week' as from the Sabbath to the Sabbath, a season as winter or summer. To understand the sequential nature of time and temporal relationships. Analyzing the solution and recognizing if it is a sufficient answer to the problem. Evidence of a new understanding. The Head of a Special Education Institution will present the case of each exceptional child in his Institution to the CoR once every three years for a review [hereinafter called the. Personal Involvement eCollection 2017. Most of the pupils proved to be more excited about the second lesson. (1966), Studies In Cognitive Growth, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Nye, J. In the first class, two are boys with DS ("A" and "B") and one a girl with DS ("C"). I requested examples from them. Chapter 3 - Methodology Focusing, Selection of stimuli, Positive anticipation, Act substitute, Verbal stimulation, Inhibition and control, Provision of stimuli, Assuming responsibility, Shared responsibility, Cause-and-effect relationship, Response—verbal and motor, Fostering of a sense of completion, Directing attention, Critical interpretation, Transmission of values, Confrontation of reality, Perception of feelings—verbal and nonverbal, Reciprocity. Discrimination and constancy of form and size across changes in orientation - an object can remain the same, continuing its constant existence above and beyond certain changes in its characteristics. (Penguin edition, 1977; English translation 1973, United States of America: Viking Press). 7. éëåìú äáéèåé ùì äúìîéã äùúðä áîùê äñîñèø. RF: The theory of SCM basically postulated that individuals can be changed in terms of their cognitive processes in a structural way. A few years later Brim (1960) agreed stating that: "the function of the socialization process...as one aimed at producing individuals equipped to meet the variety of demands placed upon them by life in a society" (p. 161). (Sample page is copyrighted material. (2000), "Verbal Short-term Memory Deficits in Down Syndrome: A Consequence of Problems in Rehearsal? & Arieli, M. (1997), "Mediated Learning and Its Application to the Enhancement of Mathematical Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome", The J. of Developmental & Learning Disorders, Vol. Behavioral comparisons in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A systematic literature review. áéøðáåí, î. Others joined her when she spoke particularly about her problems with mathematics. Romper Review, Vol. This helped them to guide the pupils in a direct and helpful manner. The descriptions serve as a support for the explanation. The Lebeer and Garbo (1997), report however has cast a new light on the subject. 95-120. The latter half proved much more difficult for all of the pupils. They therefore were willing to attempt more, and to successfully complete, tasks that they previously believed beyond their ability. Sociology tells us that the human has very often been intolerant of the deviant, or alternatively, celebrated such a person as 'touched by God'. Due to national budgetary considerations, many of these recommended financial subsidies have not been forthcoming. When I asked them for personal examples they were slow to start, but became more willing as first one and then another was willing to give at least one example. 2001;66(3):i-viii, 1-114; discussion 115-26. äàéðèâøèéáéú áçèéáåúäáéðééí" L'Annee psychologique, 14, 1-94. Special education in Israel is of high quality. (1995), Teaching Reading to Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Teachers, Maryland: Woodbine House. Data Evaluation: Some will come willingly when called others must be encouraged and persuaded. While it was quite difficult for them, they finally reached the conclusion that there was no one correct method. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). áìúé-îéìåìé. It may not be published in a public format. It became necessary to reduce the concept to the concrete. To aid perception to facilitate the establishment of relationships in terms of precise differences and commonalties (fine discrimination). Wang, M.C. Lack of spontaneous comparative behavior. When the CoR has decided to reassign an exceptional child to a Recognized Educational Institution as stated in small section [b], the CoR will recommend treatment or special lessons that will be provided by the assigned institution. Farrell, M. & Elkins, J. Qualitative research is one of the better means of evaluating educational problems. In alphabetical order: úìîéã\ä\éí îëéúúê ìîã\ä\å äòùøä àéðñèøåîèìéú (ä"à) á÷áåöåú ùåðåú äùðä åìà áëéúú äàí. 11. äúìîéã\ä îàåøâï\ú éåúø áúçåí îñåéí áìáã (àðà ìöééï 7. äúìîéã\ä îúééçñ ìúçåîé ìéîåãéí áøöéðåú Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: effects on cognition and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Montague, M. (1995), "Cognitive Instruction and Mathematics: Implications for Students with Learning Disorders, Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, Vol. "B" and "E" followed suit, not being able to find other examples. They are analyzable only as relatives not as absolutes with numerical values. Lack of or deficient need for precision and accuracy in data gathering. The evidence of Tzuriel (1992), and Sharron & Coulter (1996), would point to the IE program—as would my own experience to date. Most of the pupils in the second class did not manage to complete the exercise within the time available for the lesson. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, (1975), and Amendments, (1997), US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. Decisions regarding the employment standards will be made in Agreement with the Minister of the Treasury. Intentionality and reciprocity, Transcendence, Meaning, Individuation and psychological differentiation, Perception of feelings-verbal and nonverbal, Transmission of past and representation of future. This means starting a subject and getting the pupils to play an active part. Implicit theories concerning the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. USA: The Riverside Press. The decisions of the Appeals Committee will be made by a majority vote of its members but only if at least three members are in attendance. 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