General Thresholds for Russian Wheat Aphid Season: Crop Stage: Treatment Threshold Level: Fall: Any growth stage: 10% - 20% damaged plants: Spring: Regrowth to Early Boot Early Boot to Flowering After Flowering : 5 - 10% damaged and infested tillers 10 - 20% damaged and infested tillers more than … In spite of development of various modern synthetic insecticides, heavy losses of crop and stored grain are recorded by the attack of pests and diseases. (Rond) were recorded as the dominated aphids of wheat in Pakistan in this study. Biotic and abiotic stresses are serious environmental constraints which reduce the yield of cereals across the globe.4, 5 During recent years, the Russian wheat aphids (black aphids) have emerged as a serious threat to wheat production in Pakistan. A better knowledge of landscape scale spatial distribution of aphids and their natural enemies could be used to improve integrated pest management programs. Russian wheat aphid is most often found in low humidity areas with moderate drought stress (Anonymous, 1992). The mortality response of said pest was find out in Among others, natural population of predators and parasitoids fail to manage aphid population to acceptable limits. Aphids; Wheat crop; Yield loss. Of the 44 recommended wheat cultivars in Pakistan, Punjab-85 was found to be resistant (visual damage rating (DR) 3 at 0 to 9 damage scale; 0, healthy; 9, dead). NATURAL ENEMIES OF APHIDS ON WINTER WHEAT 507 (Fig. Wheat aphid; Botanical extract; Pakistan INTRODUCTION Plant protection plays an important role in addition to good seed, fertile soil, irrigation water and fertilizer management for maximum production. The study was conducted to check the effect of aphid density on wheat crop and its yield. 1C) in the … Pests of Wheat Aphids: Aphids attack on wheat a little before the maturity stages of wheat and directly start eating the grains. Aphids are important pests of cultivated crops in Pakistan. Aphids are major pests of wheat crop in Pakistan inflicting considerable economic losses. Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing-China 2. In Pakistan, attacks by aphids are increasing on the wheat crop, especially in cotton zones of Multan, D.G. Due to concern on synthetic chemical use in wheat, it is imperative to search for alternative environment- and human- friendly control measures such as botanical pesticides. The study was conducted to check the effect of aphid density on wheat crop and its yield. Wheat being staple food of Pakistan is constantly attacked by major wheat aphid species, Schizaphis graminum (R.), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). In addition to this, aphids as pathogens vector play a significant role in transmitting, many fungal and viral diseases in plants (Bukvayova et al., 2006). They not only reduce the yield of crops but also serve as vectors of disease. 2010). This pest species was collected from the wheat fields located in the vicinity of Faisalabad. 2003). Updated May 4, 2006 by Gary Hein and John Thomas. Abstract. All of the hatched eggs develop into wingless females. L.) is a major crop with largest area under cultivation in Pakistan and plays a significant role in economic stability of the country [1]. The population of these three aphid species remained very low during January, started building up in the 4 week of December and reached its peak in the mid February . WHEAT IS an important crop of Pakistan in terms of earning major foreign exchange and food for people. Due to concern on synthetic chemical use in wheat, it is imperative to search for alternative environment- and human- friendly control measures such as botanical pesticides. Future wheat crop in Pakistan is in threat due to aphid infestation and its becoming a serious problem for them (Wains et al. the cereal aphids in Pakistan (Ihasanul haq 1985, and Karimullah & Khawaja 1989) has created concern over the loss of biodiversity in the wheat agro ecosystem. Wheat being staple food of Pakistan is constantly attacked by major wheat aphid species, Schizaphis graminum (R.), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). The aphid attack started in mid January on the wheat cultivars and increased gradually with the growth of plant. Several kinds of aphids infest wheat in Pakistan. Population of aphids has been increasing for the last few years on cereal crops and attaining the status of pest in Pakistan (Zia . avenae are the major aphid species of wheat in Pakistan, which cause huge yield losses in wheat crop. It has not been possible to develop varieties that combine satisfactory aphid resistance with good agronomic properties and yielding capacity (Ahmad . Our observation was made from heading to early-dough stage. The importance of the natural enemies associated with the cereal aphids has been acknowledged by Chambers and Sunderland (1983). The aphid originated from Russia and was first recorded in Kenya in 1995 according to the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO). The Russian wheat aphid is a serious pest of wheat and barley causing yield losses of between 20 to 100 per cent in affected crops. Hashmi et al (8) found four species of aphid damaging the wheat crop (viz; Sitobion avenae (F.) Schizaphis graminum Round), Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch).Anonymous (1) reported that Macrosiphum granarium (F.) is a major species causing 100% … Following a modification of Ronquim et al., 2004, Muhammad et al. Aphid eggs hatch on a plant or tree in the spring (February-March) when the weather begins to warm. Bahawalpur is characterized by low humidity with drought stress. Faisalabad-85 had a DR of 4, PARI-73, Sandal and Yecora had a DR of 5, and PAK-81, WL-711, Sutluj-86 and Nuri-70 had a DR of 6. Colonies of wingless aphids develop on the flag and upper leaves of cereals then move to emerging ears, especially on wheat. Some of these are serious pests of crucifer crops, vegetables and fruit trees. In addition to the lint, cottonseed for oil and meal accounts for 80 percent of the national oilseed production.In 1991-92, cotton was grown over about 2.836 million ha, with gl percent of this area in Punjab. et al., 1999). In Pakistan, aphids have mostly been controlled by insecticidal applications. Common Name Scientific name Family Order Wheat Aphid Macrosiphum miscanthi Aphididae Homoptera Armyworm Mythimna sepatate Noctuidae Lepidoptera Wheat weevil Tanymecus indicus Curculionidae Coleoptera Wheat Stem Fly Atherigona soccata Muscidae Diptera 2. (2013) and Wains et al. Since independence, pest management techniques … Stay of aphid population on Wheat is for short time period during which rapid multiplication of aphid occurs (Jarosik et al. (2014) ranking scales, the cultivar Saleem-2000 was found Moderately Susceptible; 8 cultivars including Tatara-97, Zam-2004, FakhreSarhad-99, Barsat-2010, KT-2000, Dera-98, Attahabib-2010, and Daman-98 were found … Shizaphis graminum (Rodani) is major species in Pakistan (21) with an ample host array of at least 60 plant species including wheat, barley, sorghum and corn (17, 10). 1). Insects recorded from the literature as attacking the growing plant in the field are Microtermes obesi Hlmgr., Odontotermes obesus (Ramb.) Due to the recent change in pattern of Rainfall in Pakistan aphids get back to the wheat crop and causes approximately 17-20% damage to the wheat yield. Aphid attacks the wheat crop in the mid of February, peaks in March and goes on till April. Among cereal crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important staple food for human.Rhopalosiphum maidis, Rhopalosiphum padi, Schizaphis graminum and Sitobian avenae are the major aphid species of wheat in Pakistan, which cause huge yield losses in wheat crop. (Termes obesus), Chrotogonus spp., Eurygaster integriceps Put., Sesamia inferens (Wlk. In the present study, the Res., 2015, 53(2) 209 APHIDS (SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM R.) INFESTATION ON ... wheat in Faisalabad, Pakistan and Schizaphis graminum was the main species among them (5). These have become serious pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Pakistan (Aheer et al., 2008) and yield losses are positively correlated with aphid populations (Riazuddin et al., 2004). Wheat aphids were deliberately exposed to the above botanical extracts and then the number of live and dead aphids was counted in meter square ring on tagged spikelet's. Economically, it earns the largest export revenues. It spends its entire year on cereals and grasses. Pests of cereals Pakistan Wheat Aphid Wheat Armyworm Wheat stem fly 1. Its yield as well as production experienced substantial fluctuations during the last some years due to climatic changes. Wheat aphids are well known pests of the cereal crop -- causing up to 20 to 80% loss of wheat yield, particularly in Pakistan where over 26.3 million tons of wheat was produced in 2017-18 and where wheat accounts for 10 percent of value added in agriculture. Pakistan causing severe damage to wheat crop (Hamid, 1983; Inayatullah . All the remaining cultivars were highly susceptible to greenbug (DR ≻ 6). The dominant weeds prevailing in wheat crops were Avena fatua, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Malva parviflora, Melilotus indica, Medicago denticulata, Phalaris minor and Rumex dentatus. Following is the list of coomon weeds in Wheat fields of Pakistan: Common Name Dumbi Sitti Technical Name Phalaris minor Common Name Jangli Jai Technical … The grain aphid is considered a major pest for wheat and a moderate pest for barley. et al., 1993). Mean spike length, number of grains per spike, 100 . Rautapaa (1976), Ba-Angood (1985) and Feng et al (1992) have also contributed to the studies of … Population was comparatively higher on variety Pir Sabaque-85 (Fig. Females mature and start to feed on their host plant and reproduce. Population dynamics of wheat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) at District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan Farman Ullah1,2*, Hina Gul1,2, Fazal Said2, Asad Ali2,3, Kaleem Tariq2, Maid Zaman4 and Dunlun Song1 1. Wheat aphids has assumed scary proportions in wheat cultivation in the Pakistan for the last few years. Khan, and Bahawalpur. Aphid infestation on wheat varieties J. Agric. Aphids are present in all wheat Pakistani cultivars early, mid, and late season. Wheat (Triticum aestivum . Wheat aphids are well known pests of the cereal crop – causing up to 20 to 80% loss of wheat yield, particularly in Pakistan where over 26.3 million tons of wheat was produced in 2017-18 and where wheat accounts for 10 percent of value added in agriculture. Rhopalosiphum padi is one of the most common wheat inhabiting pest and reduce the crop yield up tò15%. After wheat, cotton occupies the largest area of all the crops in Pakistan. Aphids damaging the wheat crop in Pakistan are Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) Rhopalosiphum madis F. Schizaphis graminum R. and Sitobion avenae F. (Akhtar et al., 2010). Insecticides for Control of Aphids in Wheat . Introduction. The pest’s active period is February to October and inactive period is from December to January. Owing partly to the introduction of new fertilisers and high-yielding wheat varieties, insect pests have become a major factor limiting wheat production in Pakistan. There are about 92 species of aphids in Pakistan. Its attack is more severe at reproductive and grain filling stages, thus causing a severe decline in crop yield and the quality of produce. Identifying the bird cherry-oat aphid . Wheat aphids are well known pests of the cereal crop -- causing up to 20 to 80% loss of wheat yield, particularly in Pakistan where over 26.3 million tons of wheat was produced in 2017-18 and where wheat accounts for 10 percent of value added in agriculture.
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