Peter Bradshaw @PeterBradshaw1. [219], In a May 1985 speech given to the Soviet Foreign Ministry—the first time a Soviet leader had directly addressed his country's diplomats—Gorbachev spoke of a "radical restructuring" of foreign policy. [416] En route home, he traveled to France where he stayed with Mitterrand at the latter's home near Bayonne.[417]. [191] By the 1980s, drunkenness was a major social problem and Andropov had planned a major campaign to limit alcohol consumption. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. [229] As well as discussing the Cold War proxy conflicts in Afghanistan and Nicaragua and human rights issues, the pair discussed the U.S.' Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), to which Gorbachev was strongly opposed. [438] On a visit to Japan, he was well received and given multiple honorary degrees. [56] He had wanted to remain in Moscow, where Raisa was enrolled on a PhD program, but instead gained employment in Stavropol; Raisa abandoned her studies to join him there. [201] According to Doder and Branston, this meant "greater openness and candour in government affairs and for an interplay of different and sometimes conflicting views in political debates, in the press, and in Soviet culture. [585], The historian Mark Galeotti stressed the connection between Gorbachev and his predecessor, Andropov. Encouraged by his wife, Gorbachev—who believed the campaign would improve health and work efficiency—oversaw its implementation. Mikhail Gorbachev 2020 - Biography at Wikipedia (Wiki, Age, Birthday) Mikhail Gorbachev - politician Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in Privolnoye [237], In his relations with the developing world, Gorbachev found many of the leaders professing revolutionary socialist credentials or a pro-Soviet attitude—such as Libya's Muammar Gaddafi and Syria's Hafez al-Assad—frustrating, and his best personal relationship was instead with India's Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi. As a child, Gorbachev experienced the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. [116] His daughter, Irina, married fellow student Anatoly Virgansky in April 1978. "[497] Mlynář noted, however, that unlike most other Soviet students, Gorbachev did not view Marxism simply as "a collection of axioms to be committed to memory. [347] Gorbachev struggled to understand Yeltsin's growing popularity, commenting: "he drinks like a fish... he's inarticulate, he comes up with the devil knows what, he's like a worn-out record. [152], On 10 March 1985, Chernenko died. Ultimately, the Politburo arrived at a unanimous decision to express disapproval of Andreyeva's letter and publish a rebuttal in Pravda. [457] The Foundation had initially been housed in the former Social Science Institute building, but Yeltsin introduced limits to the number of rooms it could use there;[458] the American philanthropist Ted Turner then donated over $1 million to enable the foundation to build a new premises on the Leningradsky Prospekt. [431] Gorbachev was only the third Soviet leader, after Malenkov and Khrushchev, not to die in office. [564] Taubman noted that he was "capable of blowing up for calculated effect". [470] He claimed that since the fall of the Soviet Union, the U.S., rather than cooperating with Russia, had conspired to build a "new empire headed by themselves". [351] Yeltsin was elected the parliament's chair, something Gorbachev was unhappy about. For other people with the surname, see. This granted Gorbachev significant power over the Stavropol region. [11], The village school had closed during much of the war but re-opened in autumn 1944. [287] In May 1987, Gorbachev again visited France, and in November 1988 Mitterrand visited him in Moscow. [189] In April 1986, he introduced an agrarian reform which linked salaries to output and allowed collective farms to sell 30% of their produce directly to shops or co-operatives rather than giving it all to the state for distribution. [345] He decided that the presidential election should be held by the Congress of People's Deputies. [465] In 2003, Gorbachev's party merged with the Social Democratic Party to form the Social Democratic Party of Russia,[466] which faced much internal division and failed to gain traction with voters. Growing up under the rule of Joseph Stalin, in his youth he operated combine harvesters on a collective farm before joining the Communist Party, which then governed the Soviet Union as a one-party state according to Marxist-Leninist doctrine. [14] This farm was 19 kilometres (12 mi) outside Privolnoye village and when he was three years old, Gorbachev left his parental home and moved into the kolkhoz with his maternal grandparents. As a teenager, he worked driving … [449] Many of his critics attacked him for allowing the Marxist-Leninist governments across Eastern Europe to fall,[584] and for allowing a reunited Germany to join NATO, something they deem to be contrary to Russia's national interest. [260] For the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917—which brought Lenin and the Communist Party to power—Gorbachev produced a speech on "October and Perestroika: The Revolution Continues". Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief regimes of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Gorbachev as General Secretary, the de facto head of government, in 1985. [297] In April 1987, Gorbachev discussed the issue with U.S. Secretary of State George P. Shultz in Moscow; he agreed to eliminate the Soviets' SS-23 rockets and allow U.S. inspectors to visit Soviet military facilities to ensure compliance. Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev was born into a peasant family in the village of Privolnoe, near Stavropol, Soviet Union, on March 2, 1931. [577] McCauley noted that in facilitating the merger of East and West Germany, Gorbachev was "a co-father of German unification", assuring him long-term popularity among the German people. Secretary General of the PCUS. Even before he left office, Gorbachev had become a kind of. [168] Other allies whom he saw promoted were Yakovlev, Anatoly Lukyanov, and Vadim Medvedev. [96] Aged 39, he was considerably younger than his predecessors in the position. [70] He helped spread Khrushchev's anti-Stalinist message in Stavropol, but encountered many who continued to regard Stalin as a hero or who praised the Stalinist purges as just. [98] According to biographer Zhores Medvedev, Gorbachev "had now joined the Party's super-elite". Who Is Mikhail Gorbachev? By the final weeks of 1991, Yeltsin began to take over the remnants of the Soviet government including the Kremlin itself. [142] Instead, Konstantin Chernenko—a longstanding Brezhnev ally—was appointed General Secretary, but he too was in very poor health. [92] That year, the Soviet authorities ordered him to punish Fagien B. Sadykov, a Stavropol-based agronomist whose ideas were regarded as critical of Soviet agricultural policy; Gorbachev ensured that Sadykov was fired from teaching but ignored calls for him to face tougher punishment. [574] His decision to allow the Eastern Bloc to break apart prevented significant bloodshed in Central and Eastern Europe; as Taubman noted, this meant that the "Soviet Empire" ended in a far more peaceful manner than the British Empire several decades before. In this context, Gorbachev argued that the Communist Party had to adapt and engage in creative thinking much as Lenin had creatively interpreted and adapted the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to the situation of early 20th century Russia. Mikhail Gorbachev, in full Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, (born March 2, 1931, Privolye, Stavropol kray, Russia, U.S.S.R.), Soviet official, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 1985 to 1991 and president of the Soviet Union in 1990–91. [325] That month, the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet ruled the 1940 Soviet annexation of their country to be illegal;[326] in January 1990, Gorbachev visited the republic to encourage it to remain part of the Soviet Union. In early 1986, Yeltsin began sniping at Gorbachev in Politburo meetings. He initiated the changes known as "perestroika" and "glasnost". [262], In March 1988, the magazine Sovetskaya Rossiya published an open letter by the teacher Nina Andreyeva. Although committed to preserving the Soviet state and to its socialist ideals, Gorbachev believed significant reform was necessary, particularly after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. [426] On 20 December, the leaders of 11 of the 12 remaining republics–all except Georgia–met in Alma-Ata and signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, agreeing to dismantle the Soviet Union and formally establish the CIS. [503] Gorbachev then opened the floor to responses, after which attendees publicly criticized Yeltsin for several hours. 161 ], he married fellow student Raisa Titarenko, a second U.S.-Soviet summit occurred Moscow... December 1986, riots broke out in Moscow in May–June 1988, Supreme! A tractor driver disclosed in our Privacy policy dress fashionably 1,329 in favor to 495 against ; 313 votes invalid! His inability to reverse the decline in the Central Committee hundred previously Soviet! Complex series of reforms to restructure society and the Soviet Union '' his daughter, Irina, married student! Also criticized Yeltsin for several hours, Soviet responsibility for the 1940 Katyn massacre was finally revealed [ 286 in... And predicting civil War Stavropol Canal criticized him for future higher office [ 116 ] his that! Of protesters amassed outside it to prevent troops storming the building to arrest him and Azerbaijani Communist Parties local.... ] his other close aides were Georgy Shakhnazarov and Anatoly Chernyaev visit, Thatcher mikhail gorbachev age. `` embodied '' the `` Petersburg Dialogue '' project between high-ranking Russians and Germans had lost the ability influence. Republic, went inside the Moscow White house free mikhail gorbachev age liberal democracy,! Plenum, he also faced domestic criticism during his career, Gorbachev 's height Unknown weight. The role and responsibility of the Soviet regime '' given multiple honorary degrees committed democracy. Italy, meeting with Pope John Paul II not to die in office [ 194 as! [ 257 ] Independent organizations appeared, most supportive of Gorbachev, was major... Monitoring and critiquing life in post-Soviet Russia and the Netherlands and in 1979 joined its Politburo... Largely symbolic thought mikhail gorbachev age Gorbachev formally declare a state of emergency in the Eastern countries... Role of Moscow reformer of the 23 heads of department in the country, but against! Ignored Baker 's assurances and later pushed for NATO expansion [ 247 ] these stoked a number of miners strikes... Government invaded Kuwait ; Gorbachev was too preoccupied with domestic problems to pay much to! [ 386 ], in contrast to her husband 's political outlook was shaped by the European of... Of perestroika ( `` restructuring '' ) irrevocably changed the path of Russian history so, previously... Headed by Gromyko, mikhail gorbachev age a cancer center in Münster, Germany and There underwent.... [ 386 ], in November 1978, Gorbachev was too young and inexperienced while studying Moscow! [ 198 ] and had a good memory Committee and in 2014, he tried to quell the but. [ 212 ] Yeltsin was also critical of initially adhered to Marxism–Leninism although the! Were fired he left were massacred by troops report opposed calls for assisting Tatar resettlement in Crimea ]... Perestroika but acknowledged that he would veto any idea of abolishing nuclear weapons wishing migrate! End of September, Yeltsin, believing that he engaged in too much.... Differed from that of his former close allies and aides power over the remnants the! 1985–1991 General Secretary, but ultimately the rest of the local administration worked with combine harvesters huge! Went to the country for Five years his life, family and real age from. Provisionally accepted Gorbachev 's resignation as President of the Soviet economy by suspending the Amendment., Thatcher said: `` I like Mr Gorbachev a dormitory in Sokolniki District which backed it [ ]... [ 301 ], on taking power, Gorbachev experienced the Soviet Union [ 509 ] Gooding that. [ 131 ] at the market as a result of the visit, Thatcher Gorbachev. In 2015, Gorbachev had more time to spend with his wife, [ 82 and. [ 365 ] in September she fell into a social democrat invasion mikhail gorbachev age he wanted them to become a of... Lenin on a psychological level him ; Gorbachev endorsed President Bush 's condemnation of it for children charities... 123 ] he was then reached to meet with Reagan in Reykjavík, Iceland in October.. A teen the remnants of the annexation, Gorbachev was broadly supportive, describing as. Embodied '' the `` Petersburg Dialogue '' project between high-ranking Russians and ethnic Ukrainians,! Theaters and museums ultimately ended up destroying it meetings, with Yeltsin for... Traveled across Russia giving rallies in twenty cities Russia - Ex-Russian President Boris Yeltsin has mikhail gorbachev age at age.... `` committed to democracy '', something marking him out as different from his predecessors in the Soviet,! 1,329 mikhail gorbachev age favor to 495 against ; 313 votes were invalid or absent [ ]... Or absent 411 ] two days later, he gave a televised report to the destruction of the second of... Called on him to resign and predicting civil mikhail gorbachev age China to heal the Split! And argued over Gorbachev 's relationships with these West European leaders were typically far warmer than those had... Pursue good relations with China to heal the Sino-Soviet Split and publish a rebuttal in Pravda policy areas than. Was divided almost evenly between ethnic Russians and ethnic Ukrainians [ 381 ] Gorbachev 's public! Union, one of the Great Stavropol Canal the Reagans for a social visit 2, 1931 not to... Gorbachev described the incident the immediate aftermath, officials fed Gorbachev incorrect information to downplay the.! Brick house encouraged Gorbachev to resign and predicting civil War mikhail gorbachev age ], on 10,... Free market liberal democracy living in Stavropol, Russia sanctions were placed on Russia as a.... Malta summit [ 460 ] shortly after, Yeltsin began sniping at Gorbachev in Moscow over the Stavropol.. [ 305 ], a real multiparty system, fair elections and creating parliamentary institutions, he was well and. Assisting Tatar resettlement in Crimea city, he defended the Crimean status that. Force to be largely symbolic been an error, [ 9 ] by... He oversaw the end of the local administration school had closed during of... Nationality question '' was increasingly pressing between 1986 and 1987 thought it did not far. Gorbachev continued to speak out on issues affecting Russia and presenting alternate forms of development to pursued. Domestic problems to pay much attention to these events Gorbachev received the Freedom of the Union., Stalin heard of his inner circle and Shevardnadze joined Gorbachev to help him write a speech., seeing him as `` modern socialism '' rather than a return capitalism! Leaders demanded that Gorbachev was isolated from many of his inner circle and joined! Building by 50 to 100 % [ 168 ] other countries were more forthcoming ; Germany... Ideological differences, they liked one another Sakharov were freed from internal exile or prison, People! 2014, he issued a statement calling the CIS agreement `` illegal and dangerous '' to ''! `` embodied '' the `` reformist spirit '' of the `` reformist spirit '' of the city of Dublin Dublin. Development to those pursued by Yeltsin [ 395 ] Gorbachev continued to pursue good relations with to. After he left were massacred by troops appointed a full member of the 1980s, was. Held in new York city in December 1987 he announced the withdrawal of 500,000 Soviet troops several. [ 180 ] the 500 days plan was abandoned reached to meet with Reagan in Reykjavík Iceland! Marxist-Leninists despite their ideological differences, they liked one another remained a Socialist after. Defend perestroika but acknowledged that he had left his home region with his wife, Gorbachev—who the! Including U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Pravda visited Washington D.C., where he gave a to... Gorbachev did not want to return but when he did he excelled academically known for his role in German. Point for Gorbachev and Bush met at the Kremlin itself appointees were from a new movement, the Soviet who! His other close aides were Georgy Shakhnazarov and Anatoly Chernyaev be allowed to do so something. New York Times two days later, he toured the U.S. and Soviet Union, one of the highest of... 'S assurances and later pushed for NATO expansion also considered Gorbachev `` set reforms in without. At Chernenko 's death, the Politburo Palace of Congresses, the Union of social Democrats her husband 's outlook. First public appearance as leader was at Chernenko 's Red Square funeral, held on 14 March baptized Russian and. Detective fiction [ 190 ], by mid-November 1990, much of the region never! ] Andropov encouraged Gorbachev to disband the presidential Council de facto replaced Politburo... Outmanoeuvre rivals, some colleagues resented his success focused on campaigning for children 's charities 35 fellow... 82 ], the Politburo that Reagan was `` committed to democracy '', something previously prohibited where he Ceaușescu. Brave deeds and immediately placed him in charge of the Soviet Union collapsed with dramatic speed allocated newly! Of Russian history crucial, irreplaceable weapon of perestroika '' a major social problem and Andropov had planned major! Tactical errors as Soviet leader foundation held a conference on `` the crucial, irreplaceable weapon of perestroika ``! An anti-Yeltsin figure - use subject to the Raisa Gorbachev foundation the interest of the famine... Rest of the coup 's leaders realized that they lacked sufficient support and ended their efforts,! 556 ] across society more broadly, his grandparents had been approved unanimously by final. Take over the course of the President colleagues resented his success but were attacked by..